Role of services quality in a crowded market place: Literature Review

Services quality plays a major role when it comes to differentiation in a crowded market place, its often what distinguish successful organization form unsuccessful organization, their four the management role is to ensure the high level of the quality services that been provided to the clients, however many big entities still struggle to adequately measure or adapt the concept of service quality.

IATA (international Air Transport Association) has developed a standers that help aviation planners engineers and airport towers to help them when they make development decisions , in (1991) Seneviratne and Martel proposed a research that uses different variables which focus on what would influence the passengers expectation as result of this research they came out of conclusion that waiting time , availability of information and availability of seats in waiting areas are the main three variables that effecting the passengers travelling on the other hand Caves and Pickard (2001) done a similar study of the previous one their research has an outcome of that safety and time are the most important factors for the passenger. Those researchers began to use the fuzzy set theory model to measure those variables this theory is been applied in different varied of fields among the researchers  

This methods used in evaluating ratings cannot be associated with quality ratings with performance measurent so that those studies has luck of accurate outcomes.

Some other recent studies on services quality in the air cargo services used other services evaluation methods or combined two or three different methods of analysis like fuzzy theory, analytical hierarchy and quality function deployment with SERVQUAL models, for example Chi-Eun Na (2009) studies the services quality competiveness in the air cargo of Koran air while he applied expert question survey, AHP, and fuzzy integral in his methodology.

Passenger characteristics might contribute in perceiving different levels of services quality form passenger prospective this what George Christian and Linhares Bezerra introduced in their study the study examine the effects of those dimensions on passenger’s overall satisfaction with an airport together with variables related to passenger characteristics in an international airport. Angelos Pantouvakis study the specific service quality variables that can lead to increased passengers satisfaction in airports environment as well as evaluating the degree on which passenger perceptions of airport facilities, and the levels of satisfaction can be vary according to different nationalities. The paper examines the equivalence of service quality and satisfaction measures by applying the Rasch modelling technique variables are divided to three groups named “Servicescape and Image”, “Signage” and” Services” and significant differences with service quality perceptions are exhibited among travelers of different nationalities. Overall, the results highlight the need to assess scale equivalence across different nationalities however there were no frame work is recommended also dividing the pass anger into different nationally didn’t made any major differences to the study.

Both of those papers are just considering one segment of travelers one is per nationality and the other one as per the passenger characteristics, since the airports industry is not limited to some nationality or a specific segment of customer both study should include more general samples when it comes to data collection and study.

Parasunnan et al(1985) is the first one who suggest and developed the SERVQUAL model , the it measure the gap between the expectation and perception of the customer in specific services sector provider Some researchers revised the basic SERVQUAL dimensions to fit the

aviation industry. A study done by Arnoldina Pabedinskaitė in Evaluation of the airport service quality forcing on the airline services in the airports with respect of the consumers’ needs the study use SERVQUAL the author survey has established the relative importance of airport service quality assessment criteria in respect of airlines and as result the authors propose a system of criteria designed for assessment of the quality of airport services provided to airlines. The study has mainly focused on the airline prospective ignoring other factors might contourite, some of the variables could also been gathered under one group (airports operations) rather than using different variables like ground handling , aircraft parking and ground handling , over all the study focused more on the services that the airport provide to the airlines not to the passengers where the different airlines operates might sometimes cut the cost (budget airlines) and still the passengers will be aware of that. Although the SERVQUAL model can be consider as a general tools when it comes to  evaluating  a service quality, Cronin and Taylor (1992) conclude  in their studies that the current perfonnance reflects a customer’s perception of service quality and that expectations are not part of this concept.

 Ruzliana Fazila Kamarudin has introduced a conceptual model of managing customer expectation of the airport services experience form the passenger viewpoint, the research paper focus mainly on the passenger as end user of the airport services and facilities but the research paper used very limited variables like ( migration , bags delay , immigration and check-in time ) the variables are not totally related to the airports managing since most of those variables are third party provided like (check-in-time) since it’s the airline responsivity not the airport the study focus only on one airport another research by  Se-Yeon, Jung who  investigated in a transited passenger’s perception of airport service quality and how it influence on airport image, and passenger behavior. The study use Structural Equation modeling to analyze the data which is been collected form 331 passengers on transited at Incheon International Airport as consolation of this study it shows that there is a relationship between the raising number of transited passengers and the services quality that been provided to the passengers the variables that been used can be applied not only on the transited passengers it could be applied to any normal passenger travelling.

Vanja Bogicevic  thinks it is important to identify which air travel factors are distractors and which factors are enhancers to reach passenger satisfaction.  Using Herzberg’s motivation theory, he studies the most frequently attributes of airport service quality and distinguish key drivers for passenger Satisfaction or dissatisfaction in the airport facilities the foundation of the data was an analysis of 1,095 traveler comments posted on an airport review web site was performed in order to evaluate the services quality that been provided to them such as cleanliness ,pleasant environment to spend time and security-check points  a randomly selection of the consumer comments related to 33 popular destinations. The study only focus on satisfiers or dissastisfiers while they he don’t recommend any quality framework to improve those services that passenger dissastisfiers also the evaluation can be weak considering using Herzberg’s motivation theory the study focus more on sociology side of the passengers and not the services quality that can been seen form data that been collected.  

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